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Hogyan fejlődik az empátia?
Hollósy-Vadász Gábor
Hollósy-Vadász Gábor
- 2018. 03. 16. 11:46

101115-empathy-why-we-need-it-jpg-5aaba0694e1b9.jpg

Buda Béla (1980) szerint az empátia egy olyan emberi képességünk, melynek a segítségével bele tudjuk élni magunkat a másik személy lelki állapotába.

Ezt segíti a kommunikáció a két fél között. Ezáltal képessé válunk a másik személy érzelmeinek, lelki állapotának az alaposabb megértésére.

Buda Béla (1980) szerint gyermekkorban a szociális interakciókon keresztül tanuljuk meg, mit várnak el tőlünk a szüleink, mik az adott társadalom szociális normái, ezeknek miként lehet megfelelni, vagyis mely viselkedési formák az elvártak. Ez a folyamat az empátia fejlődése ellen hat, mivel arra ösztönöz, hogy az interakciók során ne a másik fél érzelmi állapotaira reagáljunk, hanem arra, hogy az adott helyzetben mi az elvárt.

Buda Béla (1980) szerint a serdülőkorban és a fiatal felnőtt korban az empátia gyorsan kezd fejlődni, amiben jelentős hatással bír: az egyén számára a kortárs kapcsolatai egyre fontosabbá válnak. Az empátia folyamatosan fejlődik a felnőtt identitás kialakulásával együtt, az empátia „a természetes tetőpontját az identitás végleges kialakulásának a korszakában éri el” (Buda Béla 1980, 154. o.). A modern társadalomban az identitás kifejlődése egyre későbbre tolódik, ami könnyen eredményezhet pszichológiai éretlenséget a fiatal felnőtt korban. Érett felnőttként az empátia szintje állandó, keveset változik. Öregkorban az empátia, vagy stagnál, vagy visszafejlődik, aminek hátterében a kognitív hanyatlás áll.

Buda Béla (1980) szerint a nem jelentősen befolyásolja az empátiát, vagyis a nők a férfiakkal összehasonlítva empatikusabbak. A férfiak empatikus képessége lassabban is fejlődik ki, mint a nőké, aminek biológiai, társadalmi és kulturális okai vannak. Buda Béla szerint a föntiek következtében: a nők könnyebben helytállnak olyan munkakörökben, ahol az empátia szükséges. Az empátiát mindkét nem esetében meghatározza az élettapasztalat, élethelyzet, az egyéni élmények. Az empátiát fejlesztik a szoros, érzelmileg telített emberi kapcsolatok, mivel ezekben a helyzetekben gyakran a bevett sémák nem működnek, vagyis a másik felet, mint egyént kell megérteni, illetve érzelmeire ráérezni. Ilyen típusú kapcsolatokban fontosnak tekinthetők az állandó visszajelzések, arról, hogy az adott szituációban az empátiás megértés helyes volt-e. Az életkrízisek megélése, megoldása szintén pozitívan hat az empátia fejlődésére. Az különösen igaz a párkapcsolati és házassági krízisekre, abban az esetben, ha a párkapcsolat nem merevedik egy formalizált sémává, hanem a megoldáshoz a másik fél megértése, elfogadása szükséges, illetve a pár közösen tesz azért, hogy túljussanak a konfliktusokon.

Hollósy-Vadász Gábor

A blogbejegyzést Hollósy-Vadász Gábor pszichológus küldte be, kattints ide, hogy megtekintsd a szakember adatlapját!


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